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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl3325\margr3242\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn3325\margrsxn3242\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx965 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex94\expndtw-18\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 132{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw6 ITS CAUSES : ALEXANDER'S APPEAL}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri4\sb223\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw14\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 mediately beyond the Hyphasis. He observes : "It \expndtw2 was exceedingly fertile, and the inhabitants were good \expndtw4 agriculturists, brave in war, and living under an excel\-\expndtw7 lent system of internal government; for the multitude \expndtw2 was governed by the aristocracy, who exercised their \expndtw9 authority with justice and moderation. It was also \expndtw12 reported that the people there had a greater number of elephants than the other Indians, and that those \expndtw9 were of superior size and courage."\super 1\nosupersub  These details \expndtw6 spurred the indomitable spirit of Alexander and made \expndtw12 him all the more keen to advance into the heart of \expndtw7 India. The Macedonians, on the other hand, as affirm\-\expndtw14 ed by Arrian, "now began to lose heart when they \expndtw10 saw the king raising up without end toils upon toils \expndtw4 and dangers upon dangers."\super 2\nosupersub  Indeed, the army held \expndtw5 conferences "at which the more moderate men bewail\-\expndtw11 ed their condition, while others positively asserted \expndtw6 that they would follow no farther though Alexander \expndtw14 himself should lead the way".\super 3\nosupersub  Alexander made a}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li256\fi0\ri0\sb7\sa0\sl-238\slmult0\tx1922 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-3\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 \'bb\sub\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 u\nosupersub      ,   ,{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw8 fervent   appeal to  his comrades to}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li205\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx2750\tx5162 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex106\expndtw-4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 Alexander's   ap-       -,.{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-5 1    \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0         \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0    j         \i c    \i0 i{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw22 r i}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li50\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0\tx1429 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex95\expndtw-20\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 peal{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\super\expndtw11 F\nosupersub       divest  their minds   of these   false}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f2\fs20\pvpara\phcol\posnegx130\posnegy2243\absw0\absh-277\dfrmtxtx40\dfrmtxty58 {\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-19\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 nos\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'bb}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li40\fi1228\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex95\expndtw11\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 rumours and follow him with "alac\-\expndtw26 rity and confidence." He declared: "I am not \expndtw17 ignorant, soldiers, that during these last days the \expndtw7 natives of this country have been spreading all \expndtw0 sorts of rumours \i designed expressly to work upon your \charscalex100\expndtw8 fears, \i0 but the falsehood of those who invent such lies \expndtw7 is nothing new in your experience".\super 4\nosupersub  This assurance \expndtw3 was, however, of no avail. The troops persisted in their \expndtw4 refusal to enter into further contests with the Indians \expndtw2 beyond the Beas, "whose numbers," so answered Koi-\expndtw6 though purposely exaggerated by the barbarians,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li493\fi871\ri360\sb349\sa0\sl-252\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs19 >\nosupersub  *\super 5\nosupersub ' \super M>crilldle\nosupersub '\super s\nosupersub  \i Invasion by Alexander, \i0 p. 121. \i\expndtw5 *lbi \i0 "Cartius, DC, 2,}\par }